►Introduction

Keypads are a part of HMI or Human Machine Interface and play really important role in a small embedded system where human interaction or human input is needed. Martix keypads are well known for their simple architecture and ease of interfacing with any microcontroller. In this part of tutorial we will learn how to interface a 4x4 matrix keypad with AVR and 8051 microcontroller. Also we will see how to program then in Assembly and C.


►Constructing a Matrix Keypad

Constuction of a keypad is really simple. As per the outline shown in the figure below we have four rows and four columns. In between each overlapping row and column line there is a key.


4x4 matrix Keypad outline

So keeping this outline we can constuct a keypad using simple SPST Switches as shown below:


4x4 matrix Keypad schematic

Now our keypad is ready, all we have to do is connect the rows and columns to a port of microcontroller and program the controller to read the input.


►Scanning a Matrix Keypad

There are many methods depending on how you connect your keypad with your controller, but the basic logic is same. We make the coloums as i/p and we drive the rows making them o/p, this whole procedure of reading the keyboard is called scanning.


In order to detect which key is pressed from the matrix, we make row lines low one by one and read the coloums. Lets say we first make Row1 low, then read the columns. If any of the key in row1 is pressed will make the corrosponding column as low i.e if second key is pressed in Row1, then column2 will give low. So we come to know that key 2 of Row1 is pressed. This is how scanning is done.


So to scan the keypad completely, we need to make rows low one by one and read the columns. If any of the button is pressed in a row, it will take the corrosponding column to a low state which tells us that a key is pressed in that row. If button 1 of a row is pressed then Column 1 will become low, if button 2 then column2 and so on...


Now lets move on to the programming part of keypad in our next section.

◄ Back to Index  |  Connecting a Keypad ►

Conversation

ExperimenterUK
Sun Mar 01 2015, 07:06 AM
@Anupam Biswas..post all you have done in the GSM forum
Sat Feb 28 2015, 02:51 PM
Anupam Biswas
I am doinga project on gsm based home automation.I have done alittle study about at commands.I am using Atmel 89c51 with yhe gsm module.I am unable to receive any message via the module.The simulation is done on proteus and i am using a virtual terminal.Can anyone please help me?Thanks in advance.
Tue Feb 24 2015, 12:47 AM
MrCurious
is Stat a global variable too? you reference it in Chan's "disk_status" function.
Sat Feb 21 2015, 09:10 PM
Harikumar
കൊള്ളാം
ExperimenterUK
Fri Feb 20 2015, 06:28 AM
@sugikz.. I have asked Ajay about it, he'll soon sort it out
Thu Feb 19 2015, 12:22 PM
sugikz
"Sorry no bots allowed! You entered two different email addresses. Please enter a valid email address in the two fields provided"
Thu Feb 19 2015, 12:21 PM
sugikz
this are the problem notice box;
Thu Feb 19 2015, 12:20 PM
sugikz
yes, i still got stuck on email problem, i've used gmail, yahoo, and told some friends of mine to sign up on the site, but they face the same problem as iam,
Thu Feb 19 2015, 05:48 AM
sjeeva
hi, is any doing a project on raspberry pi
Thu Feb 19 2015, 05:48 AM
sjeeva
hi

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raamchandran
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ABiDAEV Avatar
Posted By ABiDAEV
Sun Mar 01 2015, 11:42 AM
Thanks for sharing, but can you please update the ...
sankalp_s Avatar
Posted By sankalp_s
Thu Feb 26 2015, 09:27 PM
What are you trying to make ?ExperimenterUKsir i w...
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Posted By ExperimenterUK
Thu Feb 26 2015, 12:58 AM
We seem to be moving away from the original projec...
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Posted By ajay_bhargav
Wed Feb 25 2015, 02:02 PM
You will need a 64 bytes buffer that will be writt...
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Posted By PsySc0rpi0n
Wed Feb 25 2015, 09:24 AM
I've already read that tutorial and almost all oth...
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Posted By ajay_bhargav
Wed Feb 25 2015, 04:56 AM
brightness control is going to be tough job as you...
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Posted By ajay_bhargav
Wed Feb 25 2015, 04:36 AM
I've already read that tutorial and almost all oth...
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Posted By sankalp_s
Tue Feb 24 2015, 07:18 PM
The attached code is for up to 16 LEDs.Just point ...
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Tue Feb 24 2015, 07:12 PM